Blog 1: Influence of Team Diversity

team diversity

Nowadays, each business around the world concerns the effective team managements to bring the highest-performance in the consequence by collaborating with different kinds of peoples in one team which is called “Team Diversity”. It is a multidimensional concept of peoples including different background, gender, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, nationality class, religion, age and disability. According to Vielba and Edelshain theory, most successful organisations in global market perform team diversity to seek the right employees to work in their company for adapting their products and practicing to fit the expectations of customers (McGuire and Bagher, 2010).

As a leader of the team in the organisation, it is important role to lead the employees in the team diversity since the business practicing from leader will be resulted of building unique attitudes, behaviors and outlooks through the team members. For Moore theory (1999), he stated that recognizing, understanding and valuing difference is the key for leader to increase participation rates of diverse group in the workplace which creates the impressive outcome and high performance of work from the team members (McGuire and Bagher, 2010).

In order to lead team diversity, leader should provide the good leadership style through team members to engage team with a diverse set of personalities effectively. There are four main methods that leader should concern on the following (Ebokosia, 2012):

1) Know and adjust your “default” leadership style – Leader should understand the preferred way of managing. If it is not suitable for team members, leader needs to modify the leadership style to each employee for creating self-awareness.

2) Ask the right questions into team member – Leader should response what the team member want to be managed by providing the right questions and the right answers. This will help leader to give the best suited task of work to each team member by focusing on the strengths and weaknesses.

3) Highlight exemplary behavior – Leader need to provide the suitable technique into team members which is “the ability to enable others to act”. For example, leader can highlight one employee who can make highest sales in their retail stores by encouraging team members to follow, not tell or force them directly. This technique can promote self-starters and encourage team-work.

4)  Find the right way to engage low performers – Leader should motivate low performance of some team member to support them into better performance in the future such as giving good feedback, explaining problematic behaviour or seeking out solutions together.

Team Diversity can affect a wide array of important team outcomes, including performance, satisfaction, creativity and innovation through the organisation. In addition, it can also instigate the exchange and processing of different perspectives and ideas from different peoples in team which can able to increase team performance, work motivation and satisfaction through team members. Consequently, the organisation can involve a complex process of moulding a common set of values inclusive of difference which gains the profitability (Homan and Greer, 2013).

However, the different in views and backgrounds can create the confusion, threaten and annoyance through the individuals, as it can be delayed in decision making due to diverging views and opinions within team members. Furthermore, dissimilar cultures and values with conflict opinions can negatively affect the overall team spirit that is essential for reaching high-levels of productivity. In overall, the disunity of team members will be damaged the outcome of the organisation (Welinder, Araujo and Lynn, 2012).


The case study of Thorntons, the quality chocolate retailer opening in U.K. over 100 years, is the good example company of providing the effective team diversity in the organisation. Thorntons offers a flexible benefits programme, training and development programme with the whistle blowing policy to manage the employees in the organisation equally and effectively. Thorntons also monitors all staff to develop both individual and teams in line with their business. Moreover, Thorntons encourages the employees to share their ideas and opinions through the company and coworkers. This shows that the company fully concerns in the important of diversity in the organisation (Thorntons, 2012).

In conclusion, it is very important for the leader to control the team diversity in the organisation. There are many benefits for the organisation such as increasing in productivity, innovation, employee satisfaction, motivation and excellent work environment. However, team diversity is also the challenge factor for leader because different in both intrinsic attitudes and extrinsic appearance may create the conflict between peoples in the organisation. From this case, it is the role for leader to create the environment of tolerance and understanding into team members to adopt their mindset in same path.


[1] McGuire D. and Bagher M. (2010) Diversity training in organisations: an introduction. Journal of European Industrial Training (34) pp. 493-505

[2] Ekobosia A. (2012) Multiple Personalities: How to Lead a Diverse Team to a Common Goal [online] available from <> [17 June 2013]

[3] Welinder E., Araujo J. and Lynn K. (2012) The pros and cons to diversity [online] available from <> [18 June 2013]

[4] Homan A. and Greer L. (2013) Considering diversity: The positive effects of considerate leadership in diverse teams. Group Processes Intergroup Relation. 16(1) pp.105-125

[5] Thorntons (2012) Thorntons Annual Report 2012 [online] available from <> [18 June 2013]


Blog 2: Changing in Leadership Style



Today, the leadership management style has moved away from command and control of individual into consultative and participative approach, the best approach is vary depends on the circumstances and individual characteristics (CMI 2013).

This shows that leadership style from most managers in the organisation has shift from the autocratic leadership into democratic leadership. By the way, there is one more leadership style which is the Laissez-Faire Leadership Style. From this case, it is important to understand how difference of three leadership styles in the organisation:

  • Autocratic Leadership (Authoritarian Leadership) – It is a leadership style characterized by individual control over all decisions and little input from group members. It typically makes choices based on their own ideas and judgments with rarely accept advice from followers (Cherry K, 2013).
  • Democratic Leadership (Participative Leadership) – It is a leadership style in which members of the group take a more participative role in the decision making process. It means that ideas move freely amongst the group and the organisation (Cherry K, 2013).
  • The Laissez-Faire LeadershipIt is a leadership style that allows complete freedom to all workers and has no particular way of attaining goals (Bhatti et al, 2012).

These leadership styles are advantages and disadvantages which depend on individual situation and type of organisation. In order to apply all of these theories, there is an example from the research to show how manager might know how to act in the difference situation:

  • Autocratic Leadership – It is used in most regiments of the army in the military to follow the rule from the leader. For example, if you are a soldier and you were fighting in the war, you need to follow the order from the leader only. Otherwise, the leader has the power to control or even punish you if you do not follow the order (Public Services and Leadership, 2012).
  • Democratic Leadership – It is used in the school for teacher to teach the students in classroom openly. For example, teacher (or leader) in the classroom can involve students in devising classroom rules and can provide students some choice in assignments related to particular purposes or subject matter (William W, 1998).
  • The Laissez-Faire LeadershipIt is used in the staff specialists or consultants who are accustomed to working in team environments such as car dealership. For example, CEO of car dealership may allow all departments to operate on their own without his direct supervision. All of them understand how they will achieve the objectives from CEO (Nordmeyer B, 2013).




The good examples that support the view of the CMI are John Lewis and Waitrose organisations. Since both companies have divisional councils with at least one elected councilor to represent each branch, all partners have the opportunity to share their opinions into the partner council, the partnership board or even the chairman. They can provide feedback and question management on branch matters to raise their own issues and be consulted for finding the best solution. This is related to CMI theory that supports the democratic theory through the organisation (John Lewis Partnership, 2013).

According to my own experiences in the leadership management style, I have been working as the full-time food service employee in Movie Allstar Resort in Florida, United States. I am managed by the food service manager that he used command and control approach to let me follow the policy and regulation of the company with doing the job done within the appointment timeline. However, he also motivated and encouraged me if I had some problems to ask him or I would like to share any ideas to increase the profitability in the organisation. So, my manager used the democratic leadership style to motivate each employee to follow and share their ideas into the organisation. Both combinations of task behaviours and relationship behaviours that manager led to me are very effective for me because I am respect and understand what manager needs from me, and I am satisfied to do this job as I am the importance person in the part of organisation.

In conclusion, there is no single best style of leadership. Effective leadership is varied with the benefits and limitations. It is not only with the person or group that is being influenced, but it also depends on the task, job or function through the organisation that needs to be accomplished. Some organisations must use autocratic leadership to control effectively by the individual task, while some organisations prefer to use democratic leadership to collaborate by sharing their ideas in order to achieve the same objectives.


[1] Cherry K. (2013) What Is Democratic Leadership? [online] available from <> [20 June 2013]

[2] Cherry K. (2013) What Is Autocratic Leadership? [online] available from <> [20 June 2013]

[3] Bhatti et al (2012) The Impact of Autocratic and Democratic Leadership Style on Job Satisfaction. International Business Research (5) pp.192-201

[4] Public Services and Leadership (2012) Authoritarian Leadership [online] available from <> [20 June 2013]

[5] William W. (1998) Democratic Leadership in the Classroom: Theory into Practice [online] available from <> [20 June 2013]

[6] John Lewis Partnership (2013) Democratic bodies [online] available from <> [20 June 2013]

Blog 3: Positive Impact of Organisational Change


“Change is an evitable and constant feature. It is an incapable part of both social and organisation life and we are all subject to continual change of one form or another. Even like it or not, change always happened” (Mullin 2010, 751-752)

Change can affect all aspects of the operation and functioning of the organisation such as policies, procedures, rules and role through the individual group, organisation, society, national or international level as a result of significantly improving the overall performance in the organisation and competitive standing of others. Therefore, it is necessary for leader or manager in the organisation to understand the important of change and take the right action in the change process through the organisation.

But in reality, organisational change is difficult to do. Some peoples resist for change because they believe that change is disruptive and stressful. There are several factors of people resistance in change on the following (Riley J, 2012):

1) Parochial Self-Interest – Different point of views from parochial peoples are often biased by their perception of particular situation.

2) Habit – Some peoples prefer comfort and security of unchanged.

3) Misunderstanding – Some peoples have communication problems with inadequate information.

4) Low Tolerance of Change – Some peoples are not secured in change.

5) Different Assessment of the Situation – Some peoples disagree over the need for change and the advantages and disadvantages of change.

6) Economic Implications – Change may effect to the payment or other rewards to the employees. So, they interested in maintaining the status quo.

7) Fear of the Unknown – Some confront people tent to generate fear, anxiety and uncertainty of change.

From this case, resistance to change is inevitable for some organisation. Managers must allow for some resistance to explain and share the reasons of unchanged situation when they are planning to implement change through the organisation. Here is the eight ways of manager roles to avoid and overcomes resistance to change (Steve, 2011):

1) Always anticipate some push back – When manager plans to change, he or she should be ready for the natural reaction that all humans have to change.

2) Create Opportunities to vent – Manager should understand why the employees want to remain the status quo. Talking, site visits and survey will be useful technique for manager to response and ask what the employees need.

3) Listen – Manager has to listened both legitimate and non-legitimate opinions from the employees to help them solve their problems.

4) Look for trends – If some peoples or divisions do accept in change, manager may want to focus on those groups of peoples to open-mind the real reason of unchanged.

5) Be specific – Manager has to create direction ways to help peoples through the very specific concerns they have.

6) Be honest – Manager needs to be honest with their subordinates since it can build the trustfulness through the employees in organisation.

7) Bend but don’t break – Manager should provide the creative ways to ease the employees into the change such as providing the substitute of old way with the new way.

8) Silence is not golden – Manager should not believe that everyone is alright with the change because they are not vocally complaining. So, manager must encourage their employees to give some feedbacks of change.


JC Penney case study is the good example in effective organizational change management. In the beginning period, JC Penney’s culture organisation is very formal and rigid which is caused to reduce the overall performance through the organisation as a result of the problem in financial and shared prices, and closing the creativity and innovation of ideas from low-level employees. But after Ullman joined the company as chairman and CEO in 2004, he tried to change and launch the cultural in organisation by promoting such as Symbolic Changes, Retail Academy and Winning Together Principle. He listened to JCP’s employees and initiated the changes based on employee feedbacks which create their job satisfaction and turn to be greater overall performance and greater overall profitability in the consequence (ICMR, 2012).

In conclusion, organizational change will be effective depends on the management of manager or leader in the organisation. So, he or she should have positive attitudes towards the resistance to change and ready to adapt the change’s resistance for the best solution. Also manager needs to respond the answer to their subordinate during the change process such as personal issues or problems from some group of peoples. Finally, manager has to encourage their subordinate in sharing opinions and ideas to understand what they need to reduce number of resistance in organisation.


[1] Mullins L. (2010) Management & Organisational behaviour, Pearson Education Limited, 9th Edition.

[2] Riley J. (2012) Managing Resistance to Change [online] available from <> [19 June 2013]

[3] Steve (2011) 8 Ways to Deal with Resistance to Change [online] available from <> [19 June 2013]

[4] ICMR (2012) Remaking JC Penny’s Organisational Culture [online] available from <> [18 June 2013]

Blog 4: Ethical Leadership VS Unethical Leadership


From Brown et al theory, Ethical leadership are the influential role models in organisations who shape attitudes and behaviours by demonstrating appropriate conduct in their own actions and interactions with others and by promoting ethical conduct by communication, reinforcement, and decision making (Neubert, Wu and Roberts 2013).

Generally, Ethical leadership is very important in the organisation which provides benefit with the positive effects and positive relationship through both individual and organisation. This is the examples of how influence in practice the ethical leadership for the organisation (Community Box, 2010):

–          Provide model ethical behavior to the community in the organisation

–          Build trust, creditability and respect both for individual and for the organisation

–          Lead to collaboration which creates good team-working in the organisation

–          Create good climate and atmosphere in the organisation

–          Increase the self-respect and moral of peoples in the organisation

In opposite, some organisations prefer to use “Unethical leadership” which is defined as the behaviors conducted and decisions made by organisational leaders that are illegal or violate moral standards, and those that impose processes and structures that promote unethical conduct by followers. This leadership style is motivated by greed and involves harming others to make profit. However, unethical leadership style can benefit in seeking the accomplishment organisational goals so that leaders can encourage corrupt and unethical acts within their organisation (Thornton L, 2012). There are various terms of unethical leader acts such as:

–          Abusive supervision – Subordinates’ perceptions of the extent to which supervisors engage in the sustained display of hostile verbal and nonverbal behaviours, excluding physical contact. (Tepper, 2000)

–          Supervisor undermining – Supervisory behaviour that is indended to hinder, over time, the ability of subordinates to establish and maintain positive interpersonal relationships, work-related success, and favorable reputations. (Greenbaum, Mawritz and Piccolo, 2012)

–          Toxic leadership – Leadership approach that harms peoples and even the company as well through the poisoning of enthusiasm, creativity, autonomy and innovative expression by over-control (Wilson-Starks, 2003).

–          Tyrannical leadership – Leadership that use their own power with cruel and oppressive tactics to take their own advantage rather than the well-being of their subjects and in the process (Glad, 2007).

These terms of leadership styles are oppressive, abusive, manipulative, and calculatingly undermining. Their actions are perceived as intentional and harmful which creates the source of legal action against employers (Tepper, 2000).


Good example of unethical successful company is Apple – the world’s most valuable company and one of its most profitable in the global brand. This most admired company is also among its least ethical with three reasons. Firstly, the impacts of Apple’s actions are greater and harmful by avoiding tax on profit from transferring intellectual property. This tax is valuable into the cost in the U.S. Treasury approximately $2.4 billion and can make Apple to have highest profitability. Secondly, the role models are pioneers of bad behaviour that is going to have much more pernicious effects than innovative avoidance by an obscure company. This shows that Apple has low responsibility for ethical leadership but we can agree that they rightly expect visible individual leaders and corporations to hold themselves to the highest standards. Lastly, Apple is so aggressively in trying to find every last loophole in the tax code. This is caused to push any workers in their organisation to exhaustion and suicide in Chinese sweatshop because of tyrannical leadership style in the organisation. Based on three reasons, Apple is still be one of the most profitability company and Americans take such pride in Apple brand by using unethical leadership (Callahan D, 2012).

In conclusion, even though unethical leadership can help some organisation to achieve the objectives and goals with the profitability into the company, but this leadership style can create the negative effects such as the pessimistic of employee attitudes, difficulty of recruitment and bad work environment. These impacts could happen in the future and in the long-term period which may damage the company image toward the employee trust and customer thinking. So, the manager should focus on the ethical leadership rather than unethical leadership because ethical leadership is sustainable method that creates many positive effects in the overall performance of company through the individual and group of peoples in the organisation in the long-term period. Contrast with the unethical leadership style that is difficult to predict in the successful of the business in the long-term period.


[1] Thornton L (2012) What is Unethical Leadership? [online] available from <> [19 June 2013]

[2] Tepper (2000) Consequence of Abusive Supervision. The Academy of Management Journal (43) pp.178-190

[3] Glad (2007) Tyrannical Leadership [online] available from <> [19 June 2013]

[4] Community Box (2010) Ethical Leadership [online] available from <> [19 June 2013]

[5] Wilson-Stark (2003) Toxic Leadership [online] available from <http://‎> [19 June 2013]

[6] Neubert, Mitchell and Wu (2013) The Influence of Ethical Leadership and Regulatory Focus on Employee Outcomes [online] available from <> [19 June 2013]

[7] Callahan D (2012) Apple iCheat: How the World’s Biggest Company Also Became the Most Unethical [online] available from <> [19 June 2013]